The brief introduction of titanium

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Titanium is a kind of silver white metal of which the density is 4.5, the melting point is 1660 degrees Celsius and the boiling point is 3287 degrees Celsius. Titanium has high mechanical strength, high temperature resistance and ultra-low temperature resistance. It is easy to process and has good corrosion resistance which will not be influenced by the atmosphere and sea water. It will not be corroded by diluted hydrochloric acid, diluted sulphuric acid, nitric acid or the dilute alkali solution, only the hydrochloric acid, hot concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid will have effect on it. Titania (titanium dioxide)-the oxide of titanium has nontoxic and good physical and chemical stability, high refractive index and strong whiteness, tinting strength, hiding power, thermal endurance, chalking resistance and other feature, which can be called “the king of the pigment”.

Titanium is a typical kind of lithophile which can be commonly found by the form of oxide mineral. There are more than 80 kinds of minerals that has above 1 percent of TiO2 in the earthcrust, among which 15 kinds are of industrial value. The titanium minerals that are mainly used in China include ilmenite, rutile, titanomagnetite and so on. The metallic titanium can be obtained through using magnesium to reduce titanium tetrachloride which is gained after being treated by titanium ore.

The raw material of titanium can be used to produce titanium dioxide, metallic titanium (titanium sponge), titanium-bearing steel and welding rod coatings. Titanium dioxide is not only a kind of excellent white pigment, but also is the important raw materials of chemical industry which can be widely used in coating, printing ink, plastics, rubber, papermaking and chemical fibre industries. Titanium dioxide coating has bright color and pure tonal; it is also a kind of advanced packing of paper that makes the thin and opaque of the paper together with its high brightness, good gloss and intensity. Titanium is a kind of opaque colorant when used in the plastic industry; while used in the rubber industry, it will strengthen the intensity of white and undertint rubber, enlarge the stretching rate and improve its aging resistance and fade resistance. It is also the best extinction materials of chemical fibre that can keep the permanent extinction effect of the chemical fibre and improve its toughness. Besides, it can be used in the enemal, electric appliance, electronic raw materials and other fields.

Titanium and titanium alloy are mainly used in the aviation and astronavigation departments. Compared with alloy steel, titanium alloy can reduce 40 percents of the aircraft weight. It can be also used for making the man-made satellite shell, the spacecraft skin, the rocket engine cast, guided missile and so on. The commercial pure titanium and titanium alloy are mainly used in the power plant condenser, sea water contact device, chemical device, some mechanical engineering and other aspects in the field of non-aerospace. Especially its application in the desalination heater is a landmark event in the development of titanium industry. In the ordnance department, titanium is mainly applied on the production of naval ships and weapons.

Except for its main usage in producing commercial pure titanium and titanium alloy, the metallic titanium can be also used in producing the ferro-titanium and titanium-bearing steel in the iron and steel industry. Titanium, served as the adding element in the steel, can change the performance of steel. Thus the steel will have higher strength and hardness under the same temper temperature or temper to higher temperature with the same hardness requirement. At present, china’s titanium-bearing steel include high-strength low alloy steels, structure steel, stainless steel, heat-resisting alloy, ultra high strength steels, magnetic steel and other steel series which can be widely used in the automobile, shipping, oil drilling and other fields and has developed into the second biggest steel series next to manganese steel.

China has relatively abundant titanium ore resources which are distributed in 21 provinces and regions. Among them, the main producing area is in Sichuang province, followed by Hebei province, Hainan province, Guangdong province, Hubei province, Guangxi province, Yunnan province, Shanxi province and Shangxi province, etc. China’s main titanium resource is primary vanadium titano-magnetite of which the TiO2 content occupies 94.28 percents of the total TiO2 content in the national titanium resources; the second is exogenous ilmenite placer of which the TiO2 content occupies 3.71 percents; the third is rutile ore of which the TiO2 content occupies 1.52 percents; the fourth is rutile placer of which the TiO2 content occupies 0.49 percent.

As china’s native titanium magnetite and ilmenite placer resources storage is abundant and with uneven distribution, also as there is little proved reserves of rutile and easy-selecting ilmenite resources and relatively low grade of primary ore, currently the import quantity of ilmenite concentrate (especially rutile) and high grade titanium dioxide is relatively large in china. In order to ensure the comprehensive, coordinated, substainable and efficient development of china’s titanium powder metallurgy industry, we should follow the exploration principles of selecting the ore-forming geological conditions, reasonably distributing and, focusing on the easy-selecting rich titanium ilmenite, especially the exploration work of rutile, and improving the assurances of available high quality titanium ore resources; at the same time, we should focus on increasing the smelting technology and comprehensive recovery ability of titaniferous iron concentrate in china’s native titanium magnetic minerals, improving the ability of using titanium ore resources in producing high titanium slag and artificial rutile, and further improve the technology level and economic indicators of deep processing titanium dioxide, titanium sponge, metal titanium, titanium powder and titaniumtim. Therefore improving the products quality, market competition ability and export capacity so as to obtain the best resources benefits, economic benefits and environmental benefits in the fully development of titanium industry.