||Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875. It is a chemical element that is a brittle solid at low temperatures, however, it liquefies slightly above room temperature. It does not occur in free form in nature. No high gallium minerals exist as a primary source of extraction. It is extracted from bauxite, coal, diaspore, germanite and sphalerite.
||Gallium is a common semiconductor in the electronic industry. The semiconductor applications are the main reason for the low-cost commercial availability of gallium as an extremely high-purity metal.
|Wetting and Alloy Improvement
||Gallium wets glass and porcelain, so it can be used to create brilliant mirrors. It alloys with most metals, and is used as a component in low melting alloys. It can also be used in solders to aid wetting and flow characteristics.
||A liquid gallium-tin alloy can be used in place of water for computer chip cooling. It conducts heat better than water. It is also used in high temperature thermometers.
||Gallium can be used in a low temperature liquid eutectic alloy that is used in fever thermometers. Gallium Salts are used as radiopharmaceutical agents in nuclear medicine imaging. The body concentrates levels of the gallium in areas of inflammation.